Lower back pain causes by pulled or torn muscles and ligaments. This usually occurs after sudden movement, lifting heavy objects, injury during sports or poor back posture. Low back sprains or strains may occur suddenly or can slowly develop over time from your repetitive movements.
Strains and sprains may not look serious and may not cause lasting pain, but acute pain can be very serious. Soft tissues and mechanical issues are the major causes of low back pain. The injuries may include compression of the nerve roots, damage to intervertebral discs as well as wrong movement of spinal joints. However, the most common lower back pain causes is pulled or torn muscle or ligament.
Types of Low Back Pain
The most common types of back pain are:
- Mechanical Pain: Also known as axial pain, this type of pain comes from the bones, ligaments and muscles. The pain is usually localized to the buttocks, the lower back and the top of your legs. Mechanical pain is caused by loading the spine and feels different depending with your posture.
- Radicular Pain: The pain occurs when a spinal nerve root is inflamed or impinged. The pain follows a nerve root pattern and may affect the legs and buttocks. The sensation is sharp and you feel as if you are burning, making you weak and numb. Radicular pain mostly affects one side of the body.
Here are some common causes of lower back pain
Pain is classified as chronic if it lasts for over three months and exceeds your body’s natural healing process. In the lower back, chronic pain involves irritated nerve roots, joint problems or disc problems. The common causes of lower back pain are:
- Lumbar Herniated Disc
The center of a lumbar disc is jelly like, and it can easily break through the outside layer, which causes irritation to the nerve roots. The herniated part of the disc has lots of proteins, which cause inflammation upon reaching a nerve root and a nerve compression, both of which cause pain. The nerve fibers in the disc wall create severe pain whenever a tear takes place.
- The Degenerative Disc Disease
During birth, the intervertebral discs are filled with water and are very healthy. As humans grow old, the discs lose the hydration and therefore wear down. Loss of hydration means that discs are unable to resist force and transfer the same to the disc wall. As a result, tear causes weakening and pain, which results to herniation. There is also a possibility of the disc collapsing, leading to stenosis.
- Facet Joint Dysfunction
A human being has two facet joints in each disc in every motion segment in a lumbar spine. The joints have cartilage inside the bones and have capsular ligaments surrounding them, with innervated nerves. The joints are painful, especially when coupled with disc pain.
- Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction
Sacroiliac joints connect your sacrum at the spine’s bottom in each side of the pelvis. The strong, low-motion joint absorbs tension and shock between the lower body and the upper body. The sacroiliac joint becomes painful when inflamed, or in case there is too little or too much of motion
Read more: 8 Common causes of back pain and fast treatment you need to know
- Spinal Stenosis
The condition narrows the spinal canal where the nerve roots are situated, a condition that causes much pain. Narrowing may be forminal, central or both and may occur at a multiple or single level in the lower back.
The condition occurs when a vertebra slips over another one. There are over 4 types of spondylolisthesis, although the most common are caused mechanical instability and fractures. The pain may also be caused by nerve compression or backward instability.
The condition is caused by wear and tear of the facet joints and discs. This condition causes instability, stenosis, pain and inflammation to a variant degree and may occur at multiple or single levels of the lower spine. The condition is associated with ageing and it progresses slowly. It is also known as degenerative joint disease or spondylosis.
Spine curvature may include kyphosis or scoliosis. If the deformity leads to the breakdown of facet joints, stenosis, discs or sacroiliac joints, that means it is most definitely associated with lower back pain.
Spine dislocation and acute fractures may lead to acute pain. There should always be a medical evaluation of lower back pain after a trauma such as a fall or a car accident.
- Compression Fracture
Sudden pain is caused by a fracture occurring in the cylindrical vertebra, where by the bone caves in. The fracture is usually caused by weak bones like osteoporosis an is common with old people.
How to Treat Lower Back Pain?
- Chill It
How to treat lower back pain require the right techniques. In the initial 24 to 48 hours after an injury, the best remedy is ice, since it reduces inflammation. The warmth felt after an injury may feel good because it covers the pain and relaxes your muscles, but the heat also causes inflammation. You should only switch to heat after the 24 hours. Remember to remove the heat or ice after around 20 minutes to allow the skin to rest. If the pain does not reduce, visit your doctor.
- Keep Moving
Just like the rest of the body, the spine is meant to move. Ensure that you perform your daily activities such as walking the dog, making the beds and going to work. When you are feeling healthy, involve in some aerobic exercises such as bicycling, walking and swimming to keep the back mobile. However, be careful not to overdo this as you wouldn’t have to run a lot when your back is paining.
- Stay Strong
After you low back pain has receded, it is important to avoid future episodes by working up muscles that support the lower back such as the back extensor muscles. With strong pelvic, abdominal and hip muscles, you will have better back support. Try to avoid abdominal crunches because they strain your back.
- Watch Your Posture
If you slump, it becomes hard for the back to support the weight. Be careful with your posture when you lift heavy objects and avoid bending from your waist. If possible, bend and straighten from your knees.
- Wear Low Heels
It is advisable to wear low heels. Replace your four inch pumps with low heels or flats that are less than an inch. High heels create an unstable posture, which increase pressure on the lower spine.
Video tips of lower back pain causes
To sum up lower back pain causes usually occurs after sudden movement, especially when lifting heavy objects, injury during sports or poor back posture. The above ideas are some of the common causes of lower back pain that you need to know about if follow the above tips you will be on your way to treat your pain.
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